Fungal Infection in Hair Treatment: Traditional, Over-the-counter & Medical Therapy

29/09/2023 23 views
Fungal Infection in Hair Treatment

Fungal infections of the scalp and hair have long been a concern for those seeking ideal hair health. These infections can cause pain, hair loss, and reduced overall hair quality. 

As a result, searching for successful treatments has led to investigating various techniques, ranging from deeply ingrained cultural cures to modern medical medicines. 

This in-depth investigation looks at the panorama of fungal infection treatments for hair, including conventional procedures, over-the-counter options, and modern medical interventions. 

Types of Fungal Infections Affecting Hair

Ringworm of the scalp
Ringworm of the scalp

Here is a detailed explanation of each of the fungal infections that can affect the hair:

Ringworm of the Scalp (Tinea Capitis)

Ringworm of the scalp, also known as Tinea capitis, is a fungal infection that affects the scalp and hair shafts. Despite its name, it is not caused by a worm but by fungi called dermatophytes. It primarily affects children, but adults can also be susceptible. Symptoms include:

  • Itchy, red, and scaly patches on the scalp.
  • Hair loss in the affected areas leads to bald patches.
  • Brittle hair that easily breaks off near the scalp.
  • Swollen lymph nodes in some cases.

Ringworms of the scalp can be spread through direct contact with an infected person, contaminated objects, or animals. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, either oral or topical, and good hygiene practices to prevent spread.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that can affect the scalp and other areas with hair follicles. While its exact cause is not fully understood, it is associated with the overgrowth of the yeast Malassezia. Symptoms include:

  • Greasy, yellowish or white scales on the scalp (dandruff).
  • Red, itchy, and inflamed skin.
  • Flaking and shedding of skin.

Treatment for seborrheic dermatitis often involves using antifungal shampoos, topical corticosteroids, or other medicated creams. Regular shampooing and maintaining good scalp hygiene can help manage and prevent flare-ups.

Candidiasis of the Scalp

Itchy patches on the scalp
Itchy patches on the scalp

Candidiasis is an infection caused by the yeast Candida. While it is more commonly associated with skin folds and mucous membranes, it can also affect the scalp. Symptoms may include:

  • Red, inflamed, and itchy patches on the scalp.
  • Scaling is similar to dandruff.
  • Discomfort and pain.

Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, both oral and topical. Identifying and addressing underlying factors contributing to yeast overgrowth, such as immune system deficiencies, can prevent recurrence.

Causes and Risk Factors for Fungal Infections

The development of fungal infections is influenced by various factors, including fungal agents, poor hygiene and maintenance practices, weakened immune systems, and humid environments. Let’s delve into each of these causes and risk factors in detail:

Fungal Agents Responsible

Fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes cause fungal infections. Common fungal agents responsible for infections include Candida species (causing oral thrush, vaginal yeast infections, and systemic candidiasis), dermatophytes (causing athlete’s foot, ringworm, and jock itch), and Aspergillus species (causing lung infections in individuals with compromised immune systems).

Each type of fungus has its preferred habitat and mode of infection, contributing to the development of various fungal infections.

Weakened Immune System

Weakened immune system
Weakened immune system

A weakened immune system significantly increases the risk of fungal infections. The body’s immune response plays a crucial role in combating fungal invaders.

Conditions that compromise the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, organ transplantation, and certain medications (like immunosuppressants and corticosteroids), can diminish the body’s ability to fend off fungal infections. When the immune system is weakened, fungi can increase and cause localized or systemic infections.

Poor Hygiene and Maintenance

Inadequate hygiene practices can create an environment conducive to fungal growth and infection. Fungi thrive in warm, moist, and unclean conditions. Individuals who do not maintain proper personal hygiene, such as regular bathing, washing hands, and keeping skin dry, are at a higher risk of developing fungal infections. Failure to launder and dry clothing, socks, and undergarments can accumulate moisture and facilitate fungal growth.

Humid Environments

High humidity and damp conditions provide an ideal breeding ground for fungi. Fungal spores are present in the environment; they can germinate and grow more rapidly in humid conditions.

Individuals living in or frequently exposed to humid environments, such as tropical climates or regions with poor ventilation, are at an increased risk of developing fungal infections. Areas of the body prone to moisture buildup, such as skin folds and the spaces between toes, are particularly susceptible.

Traditional and Home Remedies

It’s important to note that these remedies may provide relief but should not replace professional medical advice. Here are some details about the remedies you mentioned:

Tea Tree Oil Treatment

Tea Tree Oil
Tea Tree Oil

Tea tree oil, derived from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia tree, is known for its antifungal and antiseptic properties. To use tea tree oil for fungal infections, follow these steps:

  • Dilution: Mix a few drops of tea tree oil with carrier oil like coconut oil or olive oil. A common ratio is 1-2 drops of tea tree oil per tablespoon of carrier oil.
  • Application: Apply the diluted mixture to the affected area using a cotton ball or clean cloth. Gently massage it into the skin and let it dry.
  • Frequency: Repeat this process 2-3 times a day until the infection improves.

Apple Cider Vinegar Rinse

Apple cider vinegar is believed to have antifungal properties that can help control fungal infections. Here’s how to use it:

  • Dilution: Mix equal parts of apple cider vinegar and water.
  • Rinse: Gently cleanse the affected area with the diluted solution using a cotton ball. Allow it to air dry.
  • Frequency: You can do this 1-2 times a day.

Aloe Vera Application

Aloe vera has soothing and healing properties that can help relieve discomfort associated with fungal infections. Here’s what you can do:

  • Gel Extraction: Cut open an aloe vera leaf and extract the gel.
  • Application: Apply the fresh aloe vera gel directly to the affected area.
  • Frequency: Repeat this 2-3 times a day.
Aloe vera gel
Aloe vera gel

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Treatments

Medicated Shampoos for Fungal Infections

Medicated shampoos are topical treatments specifically formulated to combat fungal scalp and skin infections. These shampoos typically contain active antifungal ingredients that help eliminate fungi-causing infections. They are an effective option for treating conditions like dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and tinea capitis (scalp ringworm).

  • How They Work: Medicated shampoos contain antifungal agents like ketoconazole, selenium sulfide, ciclopirox, or pyrithione zinc. These ingredients work by inhibiting the growth of fungal cells, reducing inflammation, and alleviating symptoms such as itching, flaking, and redness.
  • Usage: To use medicated shampoos, wet your hair and scalp thoroughly, apply enough shampoo, and gently massage it into the scalp. Leave the shampoo on for the recommended duration, usually a few minutes, before rinsing it off completely. Depending on the severity of the infection, your healthcare provider may suggest using the shampoo a few times a week or as directed.

Topical Antifungal Creams

Topical antifungal creams are applied directly to the skin to treat fungal infections on various parts of the body, such as the feet (athlete’s foot), groin (jock itch), nails (onychomycosis), and other skin folds.

  • How They Work: These creams contain active antifungal ingredients such as clotrimazole, miconazole, terbinafine, or econazole. The antifungal agents target the fungal cells, disrupting their growth and replication, thus helping to eliminate the infection.
  • Application: Clean and dry the affected area before applying the cream. Gently massage a thin layer of the cream onto the infected skin and the surrounding healthy skin, if advised. Wash your hands after application. The application and treatment duration frequency vary depending on the specific fungal infection and the cream’s instructions.

Oral Antifungal Medications


Oral antifungal medications are taken by mouth to treat systemic fungal infections that affect internal organs or larger body areas. They are prescribed for conditions such as candidiasis, fungal nail infections, and severe cases of ringworm.

  • How They Work: Oral antifungal medications circulate through the bloodstream, reaching the site of infection and attacking the fungal cells from within. Common oral antifungal agents include fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin.
  • Usage: These medications are typically taken daily for a specific duration as prescribed by a healthcare provider. The treatment duration may range from a few weeks to several months, depending on the type and severity of the infection.

Prescription Treatments

Fungal infections can affect various body parts, including the skin, nails, and mucous membranes. The type of treatment prescribed will depend on the specific type and severity of the fungal infection. It’s important to note that a doctor’s guidance and prescription are essential for proper treatment. Here are the details for each heading:

Antifungal Creams and Ointments

These topical treatments are commonly used for mild to moderate fungal infections of the skin, such as athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris), and ringworm (tinea corporis). They work by directly targeting the fungal cells on the skin’s surface. Common antifungal agents include clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, and terbinafine. Patients are instructed to apply the cream or ointment to the affected area as directed by their healthcare provider.

Oral Antifungal Medications

Oral antifungal medications may be prescribed for more severe or systemic fungal infections. These medications are absorbed into the bloodstream and can effectively treat fungal infections that affect deeper tissues, such as candidiasis (oral thrush) or systemic fungal infections.

Common oral antifungal drugs include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. The dosage and duration of treatment will be determined by a healthcare professional based on the specific infection and the patient’s medical history.

Antifungal Shampoos

Antifungal shampoo
Antifungal shampoo

Antifungal shampoos containing ingredients like ketoconazole or selenium sulfide are often recommended for treating fungal scalp infections, such as tinea capitis. These shampoos help eliminate the fungi and alleviate associated symptoms like itching and flaking. They are typically used a few times a week as directed by a healthcare provider.

Lifestyle Changes to Combat Fungal Infections

Hygiene Practices

  • Regular Bathing: Take daily showers using mild soap and warm water. Pay close attention to areas prone to moisture, such as the groin, armpits, and feet.
  • Dry Thoroughly: After bathing, ensure you dry your body completely, especially the folds of your skin. Moisture encourages fungal growth, so use a clean towel and focus on areas where sweat accumulates.
  • Wear Breathable Clothing: Opt for loose-fitting, breathable fabrics like cotton that allow air circulation and wick away moisture from your skin.
  • Change Clothes Frequently: Change your clothes, especially undergarments and socks, if they become damp. Avoid wearing wet swimsuits or workout gear for extended periods.

Dietary Adjustments

  • Balanced Diet: Consume a well-balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals, as a strong immune system can help fight off fungal infections.
  • Probiotics: Incorporate probiotic-rich foods like yogurt, kefir, and fermented vegetables into your diet. Probiotics promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in your gut, which can aid in maintaining a healthy immune system.
  • Sugar Reduction: Limit your intake of refined sugars and sugary foods. Fungi thrive on sugar, so reducing its consumption can help prevent fungal overgrowth.

Stress Management

Stress Management
Stress Management
  • Stress Reduction Techniques: Engage in stress-relieving activities such as deep breathing, meditation, yoga, or mindfulness. Chronic stress weakens the immune system and can make you more susceptible to infections.
  • Adequate Sleep: Prioritize getting 7-9 hours of sleep each night. Sleep is crucial for immune system function and overall health.
  • Physical Activity: Regular exercise can boost your immune system and help maintain a healthy weight, reducing the risk of fungal infections.

Preventive Measures

Cleanliness and Regular Washing

  • Fungal infections thrive in moist and warm environments, making personal hygiene and regular cleansing essential in preventing their occurrence. Follow these guidelines to maintain cleanliness and reduce the risk of fungal infections:
  • Daily Showering: Taking a shower or bath daily helps remove sweat, dirt, and excess moisture from your skin, thereby minimising the chances of fungal growth. Use a mild soap and warm water to cleanse your body thoroughly.
  • Drying Thoroughly: After bathing, ensure that you dry your body, including hard-to-reach areas like skin folds, armpits, and groin, with a clean towel. Moisture trapped on the skin can create an ideal fungi environment.
  • Trimming Nails: Keep your nails trimmed and clean to prevent debris and moisture accumulation under the nails, which can lead to fungal infections.

Avoiding Sharing Personal Items

Fungi can easily spread from person to person through direct contact or shared items. To reduce the risk of fungal infections, avoid sharing personal items, such as:

  • Towels and Washcloths: Sharing towels or washcloths can transfer fungi from one person to another. Always use your own clean, dry towel after bathing.
  • Clothing and Shoes: Sharing clothing and shoes, especially undergarments and socks, can lead to the transmission of fungal infections. Make sure to wear your own clothes and footwear.
  • Grooming Tools: Items like razors, nail clippers, and brushes should not be shared, as they can carry fungal spores. Use separate tools for personal grooming.

Wearing Breathable Fabrics

Natural Fibers
Natural Fibers

Choosing the right clothing materials can significantly impact your susceptibility to fungal infections. Opt for breathable fabrics to help keep your skin dry and reduce the risk of fungal growth:

  • Cotton and Natural Fibers: Cotton is a breathable and absorbent fabric that allows air circulation, making it an excellent choice for preventing fungal infections. Other natural fibers like linen and silk also offer similar benefits.
  • Moisture-Wicking Clothing: Moisture-wicking fabrics, commonly used in athletic wear, draw sweat away from the skin, promoting evaporation and keeping you dry. This is particularly important in areas prone to sweating, such as the underarms and groin.
  • Loose-Fitting Attire: Wearing loose-fitting clothing allows air to circulate your body, reducing the buildup of moisture and heat, contributing to fungal growth.

FAQs about Fungal Infections in Hair Treatment

Can fungal infections lead to permanent hair loss?

Fungal infections in the hair, such as tinea capitis, can lead to temporary hair loss if left untreated or if the infection becomes severe. However, with proper and timely treatment, hair loss is usually reversible. Permanent hair loss due to fungal infections is rare, and most cases of hair loss caused by fungal infections can be resolved once the infection is treated.

Are over-the-counter treatments as effective as prescription medications?

Mild fungal infections in the hair may be effectively treated with over-the-counter antifungal shampoos or creams. These products often contain ketoconazole, selenium sulfide, or zinc pyrithione. However, more severe or persistent infections might require stronger prescription medications, such as oral antifungal drugs. Consulting a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment recommendations is important.

How long does it take to see results from antifungal treatments?

The time it takes to see results from antifungal treatments can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the specific treatment being used. You might often start noticing improvements, such as reduced itching or scaling, within the first few weeks of treatment.

However, complete resolution of the infection and regrowth of hair may take several weeks to months. It’s important to follow the treatment plan your healthcare provider prescribes and be patient during the healing process.

Can I prevent fungal infections by maintaining proper hygiene alone?

While maintaining proper hygiene is important for overall scalp health, fungal infections can still occur even with good hygiene practices. Fungi thrive in warm and moist environments, so keeping your scalp clean and dry is essential. However, factors such as genetics, immune system health, and exposure to fungi in the environment can also contribute to fungal infections. If you suspect a fungal infection, seeking prompt medical attention and using appropriate antifungal treatments is crucial for effective management.


In fungal infection hair treatment, various approaches exist, ranging from traditional remedies to over-the-counter solutions and advanced medical therapies.

While traditional methods offer historical wisdom, over-the-counter treatments provide accessible options for milder cases. However, medical therapy, guided by professional expertise, is a potent solution for more severe infections. Tailoring the approach to the specific condition ensures a comprehensive strategy for combating fungal infections and restoring hair health.


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